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Full text of "North Carolina Symphony: Teachers Handbook"







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The North Carolina Symphony 

Teacher Handbook 

1999-2000 

Table of Contents 

Preface ii 



Roman Carnival Overture, Op. 9 
Hector Berlioz (1803-69) 

Classroom Activities by Jane Hoch 



Danse macabre, Op. 40 
Camille Saints-Saens (1835-1921) 

Classroom Activities by Karen Bottjen and Angela McHenry 25 



Two Dance Episodes from Rodeo 

"Saturday Night Waltz" & "Hoe-Down" 

Aaron Copland (1900-90) 

Classroom Activities by Vivian Byrd 43 

Ordering Information 47 



The North Carolina Symphony Teacher Handbook © 1999 by the North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc. 
Reproductions of this book in its entirety is strictly forbidden. Permission is given to duplicate charts, 
diagrams, scores, puzzles, etc. for classroom use only. 

The North Carolina Symphony education concerts are made possible by a grant-in-aid from the State of 
North Carolina. This program is supported in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. 
We gratefully acknowledge Glaxo Wellcome, Inc., who has made a generous grant to fund conductors for 
music education concerts and CP&L for their grant in support of the Symphony's statewide education 
mission. A special thank-you to Marine Swalin for her gift to underwrite the cost of education materials. 
This gift is given in memory of her husband, Music Director and Conductor Benjamin Swalin, and in honor 
of Jackson Parkhurst, Music Education Consultant and former Assistant Conductor and Director of 
Education. 

The North Carolina Symphony 
Suzanne Rousso, Education and Outreach Manager 

2 East South Street 

Raleigh, NC 27601 

(919)733-2750 ext. 235 



Preface 

I have enjoyed writing a new preface to the Teacher Handbook every year for the 
past eighteen years. This year I have the pleasure of introducing the new Education and 
Outreach Manager of the North Carolina Symphony, Suzanne Rousso, who is now 
responsible for the handbook's production and publication. Suzanne is a fine musician, 
an educator, a mother, and is well suited to take over the direction and management of 
the Symphony's education program. It has been my privilege to be director of the 
program for eighteen years as well as to conduct hundreds of education concerts across 
the state, but health reasons have finally made it clear to me that it is time to step down. 
I generously have been awarded the title of Music Education Consultant and look 
forward to providing assistance to Suzanne, should she need it 

I want to thank all of you who read and use this book for your support of the 
Symphony's education program over the years and for your support of me personally. I 
know that with Suzanne you are in capable hands as she is with you. I feel positive 
about the future of the program and am proud of what we all have accomplished 
together on behalf of North Carolina's school children. I look forward to hearing of 
successes to come and send you all my sincere best wishes. 

Jackson Parkhurst, Music Education Consultant 

As many of you are aware, these educational concerts as we know them would not exist 
without the efforts of Jack Parkhurst. I know I speak for all of us as music educators in saying 
that we are grateful for this gift of music that Jack has established for our children! My job is to 
continue this tradition of bringing your North Carolina Symphony to as many students throughout 
the state as possible and introduce them to the beauty of classical orchestral music. 

Hopefully, this teacher handbook will be an invaluable resource in guiding you through this 
year's three chosen works: Roman Carnival Overture by Berlioz; Danse macabre by Saint-Saens; 
and "Saturday Night Waltz" and "Hoe-Down" from Rodeo by Copland (whose 100 th birthday we 
celebrate this Millennium.) Each of these works has interesting programmatic elements that will 
capture children's imaginations and make for stimulating classroom activities. The four teacher- 
writers have each come up with wonderful information and activities; its up to you what materials 
you decide to use in preparing your classes for the symphony concert. The handbook is meant to 
be an aid to your teaching but we do not require that all or any of it be used. 

The songs for this season are "Old Dan Tucker" and "America the Beautiful", which need to 
be memorized for singing at the concert. It is difficult for children to read the words in the student 
book while they sing; so it is much more fun for them if they learn the words in advance. If you do 
not have time to teach them or do not want to teach them, let the conductor know to leave them 
out. However, it needs to be a system-wide decision; we do not want to do the songs when only 
part of the audience knows them. 

In years past there has been a questionnaire included in this handbook. This year I have 
opted to leave it out, as we had little response. Yet, I am interested in feedback from you, our 
teachers, any comments or suggestions can be e-mailed to me at srousso@ncsymphony.org, or 
mailed to me at the North Carolina Symphony, 2 East South Street, Raleigh, NC 27601 . We 
appreciate all the hard work you do to teach our children the joy of music. All the best for a 
wonderful school year! Suzanne Rousso, June 1 999 



Roman Carnival Overture, Op. 9 

Composed in 1843 

Premiered on February 3, 1844, in Paris, conducted by the composer. 

Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) 



About the Composer 

Louis-Hector Berlioz 
Composer, Critic, and Conductor 

Born: December 11, 1803, in La Cote Saint- Andre, Isere 
Died: March 8, 1869, in Paris, France 

In the small French provincial town of La Cote Saint- Andre in the Dauphine, between 
Vienne, Grenoble, and Lyons, Hector-Louis Berlioz was born on December 1 1, 1803. 
His home stood on the side of a hill with a grand view of mountains to the south and the 
ice-capped peaks of the Alps to the north. Perhaps this dramatic landscape surrounding 
the Isere plain cast a lasting impression on the young Romantic composer. 

The Berlioz family had lived in this region for many generations. Hector's father, Louis- 
Joseph Berlioz, was a distinguished and highly skilled surgeon. He was also a man of 
very liberal outlook and broad intellectual range, an openly declared atheist, and an 
inspiring mentor for his son. But Hector's mother, Marie- Antoinette Josephine 
(Marmion) ,was a staunch Catholic with a sharper temper and a much narrower outlook, 
who made her husband promise that he would not deliberately try to sway their son from 
the Faith. So for the first seven years, Hector was brought up as a strict Catholic. 
Eventually, he left the Church and abandoned the Faith, and throughout his adult life 
claimed to be a calm agnostic. 

The Berlioz family was one of typical size for the nineteenth century. Hector had three 
younger sisters: Margaret-Anne-Louise (known as Nanci, b.1806); Louise-Julie- Virginie 
(b.1807); and Adele-Eugenie (b. 18 14). Neither of his two younger brothers, Louis Jules 
and Prosper, survived into adulthood; one died at age three and the other at age eighteen. 
His middle sister also died at the age of eight. Hector was the only male sibling to reach 
adulthood. 

His father had a love for music and invited many music masters to settle in the town so 
that the boy would be exposed to a rich musical environment. Hector learned to play the 
flute and the guitar as well as learning the basics of composition. He also took singing 
lessons and became a very good sight singer. At the age of fourteen he began composing. 
He was young, impressionable, impulsive, and was to always be deeply affected by 
Romantic literature and music. The works of both Shakespeare and Beethoven 
particularly influenced him. 



While his father encouraged Hector's interest in music, he also had a strong desire for his 
son to follow in his footsteps and become a physician. In 1821 he sent Hector to Paris to 
study medicine. This move from his home to the metropolitan life of Paris provided the 
young seventeen-year-old with the opportunity to attend concerts and operas, which only 
fueled his interest in music even more. The contrast between these two fields began to 
weigh upon his decision about his future, and in 1822 he gave up the study of medicine. 
His own memoirs include a colorful description of "leaping out the window of a charnel- 
house in disgust at the sight of so much dead human flesh - and never looking back." 

Having made his choice, Hector began to study composition with Jean-Francois Lesueur, 
a French composer and professor of composition who had been teaching at the 
Conservatoire since 1818. He studied and composed during this period while under the 
influence of Lesueur, who insisted that the principles of harmony, counterpoint, and 
composition were universal laws and not to be questioned. Being young, impetuous and 
stubbornly set in his own belief that music should be a reflection of an idea or an 
emotion, Hector was full of new and different ideas for musical expression through 
orchestration. 

While a student at the conservatoire, Hector would sometimes return for visits to La Cote 
Saint-Andre. These visits were never easy for him. His father remained hopeful that his 
son would return to medicine, and his mother worried that her son would not be strong 
enough to fight the evils of music, theatre, and the moral dangers of life in Paris. 

Late in the year of 1824 he completed his Missa Solemnis, commissioned by the 
choirmaster at Saint-Roch. Berlioz labored to write all the parts out himself so they 
would be accurate, but he was to be disappointed by the singers, the orchestra and the 
rehearsal. He had been promised "huge forces" and was given only a chorus of twenty 
and a handful of musicians. It was a fiasco. But the conductor, Henri Valentino 
(conductor of the Opera from 1824 to 1830), appreciated the potential of the young 
composer and promised to help him when he had rewritten the Mass and was able to 
gather together a full choir and a competent orchestra. Early on Hector's grandiose ideas 
were to create difficulty for him. Then in 1825 with a loan from a fellow student, the 
young Berlioz engaged the orchestra, choir, and conductor Valentino and was able to 
hear his music realized and successfully presented. 

With his focus on the performance of his Mass, Berlioz had neglected his studies. When 
he failed a preliminary exam for entrance into the Fine Arts Academy of the French 
Institute, his father saw this as an opportunity to discourage his musical career and 
threatened to cut off his allowance. Even with the allowance, Hector was finding it 
difficult to meet his financial obligations. He took some pupils in solfege, flute, and 
guitar, and by rigidly economizing he was able to pay back half of his loan. Sometime 
later his father paid off the other half of his loan and again threatened to cut off his 
allowance. 

In 1826 he became a full time student at the Conservatoire and shared lodgings on the 
Left Bank with a chemistry student. They were both very frugal, but Hector had become 



determined to make it on his own; so he needed an income. And when he heard that a 
vaudeville theatre was opening in the rue de Vivienne and that it needed singers, he 
applied for a job. Hector was hired for fifty francs a month, but knew that his mother 
would die of shame if she ever found out. He was not all that proud of his new 
employment either; so he took great pains to see that his roommate believed his journeys 
to the other side of Paris were to teach private pupils. 

Hector Berlioz was passionate about everything, not just music. In 1827 the Paris Theatre 
presented the first performances of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet. Berlioz 
attended these and fell madly in love with the English actress Harriet Smithson, as well as 
the dramatic genius of William Shakespeare. He pursued Harriet fervently, with wild love 
letters that frightened her. All of his efforts proved to be in vain, and, after being 
rejected, he decided she was worthless. His unsuccessful romance served as the 
inspiration for his Symphonie Fantastique, subtitled "Episode in the Life of an Artist," a 
masterpiece of music designed to depict the experiences of a drug-crazed, suicidal young 
artist who is madly in love. 

That same year the young composer entered the Prix de Rome for the first time. He 
would enter four times before the judges would accept his work as worthy of this 
prestigious award that still exists today. He finally won in 1830 by writing a work that fit 
the conservative tastes of the judges. Just as the French were accepting his musical style 
and his fame was growing, he was off to Rome as part of the obligation that came with 
the award. In his mind, this would ruin his chances of success and he requested that the 
government defer his trip. The obligation was not postponed, but he spent only one year 
in Italy and was excused from the other two. 

As much as Berlioz enjoyed his time in Italy, his mind and heart were still in Paris, partly 
because he had fallen in love with Camille Moke, a young concert pianist. For the young 
composer, their engagement was a pledge of lasting love. For the young lady, it started as 
a game created to prove to her current admirer that she could win the affections of the 
famous composer. While Berlioz was away, Camille, and her mother, changed their 
minds, and she married a rich older piano maker. Hearing of her betrayal to him, Berlioz 
left for Paris with plans of a murder-suicide. Luckily enough, the length of the trip gave 
him time to cool off and he returned to Rome. 

The period of time that began with his trip to Italy (183 1-1832) was to be the most 
productive time in his musical career. Many of his best works were composed during 
this period in his life: 



• Harold en Italie 


1834 


second symphony 


• Benvenuto Cellini 


1835-38 


opera 


• Grande messe des morts 


1837 


requiem mass 


• The Damnation of Faust 


1846 


cantata 


• La carnaval romain 


1844 


overture 


• L 'enfance du Christ 


1850-54 


oratorio 


(The Childhood of Christ) 







• 



Romeo and Juliet 1856-59 symphony with chorus 

• LesTroyens 1856-59 monumental opera 

(The Trojans) 

It was in November of 1832 when Hector Berlioz returned to Paris. Upon his return he 
found he was able to earn a living by writing musical criticism. He was extremely skilled 
as a writer and was able to back up his tastes with his sophisticated sense of humor. But 
he found that even though this form of journalism helped to support him, it was not an 
outlet for his creative spirit. And so he continued to promote his own musical creations 
and found himself in the dual role of concert organizer as well as conductor. 

A December performance of Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique was given with a special 
invitation to his former love, Harriet Smithson. He now believed that he was still in love 
with the actress, although her career was failing and she was in debt. She attended the 
performance, and saw the relationship with Berlioz as solution to her financial problems. 
They were married on October 3, 1833. It was on August 14, 1834, that Harriet gave birth 
to their son, Louis. But Berlioz's dreams of a loving marriage to this actress were only 
dreams, as their marriage proved less than happy. Harriet was extremely jealous of 
Hector's rising success and frustrated with the failure of her career. She began drinking 
and became most difficult to manage; so he moved out. When she later became an invalid 
due to illness, Hector had to look after both her and his son. It was during this time that 
he sought the affections of Marie Recio, an opera singer (although,according to Berlioz, 
not a particularly good one!), who would accompany him on many of his travels. 

While Parisians received Berlioz and his musical presentations rather coldly, his 
performances in other countries were enthusiastically received. The audiences and critics 
from other countries seemed to have a great appreciation for his genius. He toured with 
his music, organizing and conducting successful concerts in Germany (1841-43), Russia 
(1846-47) and London (1847-48). 

It was in March 1 848 that Hector Berlioz began working on his Memoirs. His purpose 
was twofold: first, he wished to correct the many errors and inaccuracies that were 
circulating about him; second, he wished to disclose the difficulties confronting those 
who wanted to be composers. Although he relished the admiration of those abroad, 
Berlioz was in his heart and soul a Frenchman. And so he would return to Paris in July 
1848. Later that year his father passed away; and Harriet died in 1854. 

By 1855 Hector Berlioz was getting the recognition and appreciation deserving of a great 
composer. His works began having a profound influence on other composers and his 
Traite d' Instrumentation et d 'orchestration modernes (1844) was becoming a standard 
reference work, the first on the subject of the aesthetics of musical expression. Other 
important writings include Wis Memoirs (published posthumously in 1870) and Soirees 
d'orchestre (Evenings with the Orchestra, 1853). 

He had continued to tour between 1848 and 1855 with mixed results. But the last thirteen 
years of his life were spent in Paris. It was during this last period of time that the French 



4 



began to reluctantly admit that he was indeed a major composer of the time. Berlioz 
began work on his monumental musical drama or opera, Les Troyens (The Trojans), 
because he believed that there was money and fame in opera. The masterpiece score, in 
which his romanticism is infused with classical restraint, was finished in 1856 and was 
sent to the Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein, who had suggested the theme for the opera after 
she had seen Wagner's The Ring. The score lay around for five years, and Berlioz feared 
that it would never be performed. Les Troyens a Carthage was finally produced by a 
Paris theatre in November of 1863, and after the second performance he was thrilled at its 
overwhelming success. 

Marie had died of a heart attack in 1862, then tragically in 1867 his son, a sea captain, 
died of yellow fever in Havana. It was a shattering blow to Hector because the two of 
them had been very close. After this, it seemed that the composer lost the desire to 
continue his struggle for recognition of his orchestral creations. In January 1869 Berlioz 
took to bed sick and died in March. A square in Paris now bears his name with a statue 
that overlooks it. 

Hector Berlioz was a man whose life consisted of many volcanic passions. He was also a 
man whose ability to detach himself from his experiences and observe them accurately 
would carve for him a prominent place among the great composers and musicians of the 
Romantic era. He dedicated his life to educating the public in this new musical style. 
His persistence led him to become a revolutionary composer, a wonderful critic, a great 
conductor, a musical educator, a concert organizer and promoter, and a fine 
autobiographer. His utilization and appreciation of the possibilities of grand scale 
performances by an orchestra provided leadership for other composers who would follow 
the Romantic style. 



About The Music 

In 1838 the September tenth premiere of Hector Berlioz's opera Benvenuto Cellini was 
nearly a complete failure. Based on his reading of the extravagant Memoirs of this 
Florentine sculptor, goldsmith, musician, military hero, murderer, and spinner of 
incredible yarns, the opera was the composer's musical setting of selected "scenes" from 
Benvenuto Cellini's life. Berlioz had found a dramatic Renaissance figure who had lived 
as an artist-hero, a "genius" (to use the Romantic term of Berlioz's day) who could dazzle 
ordinary mankind, a super-hero human being, and a kindred spirit for his Romantic soul. 
Cellini's intensity for living must have ignited the composer's feverish and highly 
excitable imagination and provided him with the perfect hero for his Romantic opera. 

This operatic work contained a great variety of musical styles. The composer's 
interesting use of the chorus in crowd scenes was considered to be ahead of its time. But 
the performance of the opera did not appeal to the audience. Berlioz himself reported 
that, except for the original overture to the opera, everything else " was hissed with 
admirable energy and unanimity." 



In 1843, however, he successfully extracted thematic material from this opera to use for a 
new overture that he could use as an independent concert work (or as an introduction to 
the second act of Benvenuto). Using the flavor of the setting of his original work and his 
own Italian travels as inspiration, he named his new piece Roman Carnival. The Overture 
had an overwhelming success at its concert premiere in Paris on February 3, 1844, and 
was encored. It became, along with the Symphony Fantastique, one of his most popular 
works and one that he programmed most frequently on the concerts that he conducted. 

Two melodies were borrowed from Benvenuto Cellini for the Roman Carnival Overture. 



Theme one , a slow melody played by the solo English horn, is based on Benvenuto's aria 
O Teresa, vous quej'aime ("O Teresa, whom I adore"). This was the same melody that 
had been originally composed for the cantata La Mort de Cleopatra, Berlioz's 
unsuccessful attempt to win the Prix de Rome in 1829. 




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This love song is followed by strains of the saltarello which launch the Overture into a 

rousing carnival dance. 



The second main theme occurs in the Allegro section. It is an exhilarating dance melody 
reminiscent of the folk dances Berlioz heard in Rome. 



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The Roman Carnival is made up of two large sections that are introduced by a wild 
flourish based on the saltarello melody. The mournful English horn then presents the 
"love song" theme of the work's first section. As it proceeds and is repeated, this lovely 
strain is wrapped in Berlioz's characteristic, glowing orchestral fabric. There is a 
shimmering gloss added to the sound by the tambourine and the triangle. 



Following the love song, the second section brings in the theme of the saltarello. First it 
appears in a light, scherzo-like passage, then bursts out fortissimo with the main theme. 
This dominates the rest of the Overture. Here the orchestration characterizes the lively 
street dancing, similar to the dance that was performed during the second act of his opera 
"in the Piazza Colonna in Rome." Amid the swirling gaiety of this street festival, the 
simple strain of the love song from the first section can be heard in the rich sonorities of 
the bassoon and trombone. Toward the end, the saltarello seems to fade away in the 
distance, with only its rhythm remains faintly throbbing in the violins. But this is a mere 
feint: what Berlioz's countrymen would call "reculer pour mieux sauter" The rollicking 
exuberance of the saltarello soon resumes— wilder than ever in a glorious melee of 
canonic entrances, shifting meters, and dazzling orchestral color — to close his musical 
Mardi Gras. 

The composer himself tells a tale about this second theme in his Memoirs: 

Habeneck (Francois Antoine Habenack; the conductor of the opera's premiere) 
could not catch the lively pace of the saltarello that is danced and sung in the 
Piazza Colonna in the second act. The dancers, put out by his sluggish tempo, 
complained to me. I kept urging him on, "Faster, faster! Put more life into it!" 
Habeneck struck the desk in his annoyance and broke his baton. In the end, after 
witnessing four or five similar outbursts, I remarked with a coolness that 
infuriated him, "My dear sir, breaking fifty batons won't prevent your tempo from 
being twice as slow as it ought to be. This is a saltarello" At which Habeneck 
stopped and, turning round to the orchestra, said, "Since I an unfortunately unable 
to satisfy M Berlioz, we will leave it at that for today. You may go, gentlemen." 
And there the rehearsal ended. 

A few years later, when I wrote the Roman Carnival Overture - the main theme 
of the Allegro of which is this same saltarello that he could never get right - 
Habeneck was in the artist's room at the Salle Herz on the evening of the first 
performance. He had heard that at the morning rehearsal we had played it 
through without the wind instruments (the National Guard having relieved me of 
part of my orchestra), and he had come to witness the catastrophe. One sees his 
point. Indeed, when I arrived in the orchestra, all the wind players crowded round 
me, appalled at the thought of giving a public performance of an overture that was 
completely unknown to them. "Don't worry," I said. "The parts are correct and 
you are all excellent players. Watch my stick as often as you can, count your rests 
carefully, and everything will be all right." Not a single mistake occurred. I 
started the Allegro a" the right tempo, the whirlwind tempo of the Roman dancers. 
The audience encored it; we played it again; it went even better the second time. 
On my return to the artist's room, I saw Habeneck standing with a slightly 
crestfallen air, and said casually as I went past, "That's how it goes." He did not 
reply. 

As you listen to the Overture, you will probably find that its richness of tone color and 
variety directs the music's appeal first to your senses. It could be that this was Berlioz's 



intention when he gave the melody to the English horn, with its dark plaintive sounds. 
This instrumentation was quite unusual at the time the music was written. Berlioz was 
perhaps the ideal representation of the 1 ^-century Romantic composer and was indeed 
one of the true revolutionary figures in music. He was not interested in formal structure 
and created music that was exciting and wonderful and emotional. He is admired for his 
sense of dramatic expression, his capacity for abundant melody, and his mastery of 
orchestral color. Within this realm of understanding, the Roman Carnival clearly 
exemplifies the essence of the composer's Romantic artistic expression. 

About The Romantic Period 

The word "romantic" comes from "romance," which originally referred to a medieval 
poem written in one of the Romance languages and dealing with a heroic person or event. 
Later the word took on the connotation of something far away and strange or something 
imaginative and full of wonder. It even included the idea of a romantic love. 

The word "romantic" as used in the fine arts refers to the tendency toward a reliance on 
personal feelings which characterizes many artistic works of the period. The Romantic 
composer or artist rebelled against the restraints and rules of the preceding classical 
period. He believed that his feelings about something were more important and more 
valid than his objective appraisal of it; therefore he was interested in mood and color and, 
at times, fervent excitement. Berlioz was a composer who displayed these traits. This is 
perhaps to be expected from an erratic and impulsive Frenchman with reddish hair. 
Berlioz was especially interested in manipulating the vast array of tone colors offered by 
the orchestra. He even wrote a book on the subject of orchestration, one that would be a 
recognized treatise on the subject for nearly one hundred years. 

The Romanticist was characterized by a fascination of the unknown and an awe of the 
world. He was impressed by the mystery of the world and its inhabitants. He relied on 
emotion and imagination rather than on the intellect, which had been central to the 
Classical outlook. Feelings replaced reason. Truth was seen as what one felt to be true. 

While Classical man thought of medieval times as the "Dark Ages", the Romanticist 
thought of them as heroic and magical. Painters and authors of this period would chose 
subject matter dealing with the distant and the exotic. Artists of this era were also 
attracted to nature and its representation of a world untainted by man. Sometimes nature 
was extolled to the point of pantheism - the belief that God and nature are one. This rural 
interest led to landscape paintings, poems on natural phenomena, and works like 
Beethoven's Symphony No. 6 {Pastoral). 

The Romanticists were highly subjective and individualistic people who frequently would 
become egocentric. Since their works were a projection of their being, they created to 
share with audiences and not for patrons. They were frequently seen as anti-social, and 
some withdrew into a world of their own, surrounded by a close circle of friends and 
admirers. And yet, this Romantic era saw the establishment of the concert hall with its 
large audiences, and some Romanticists thoroughly enjoyed the adulation of the public. 



Their new perspective toward personal creativity changed the position of the musician 
and the composer in society. 

About the Saltarello 

A saltarello is defined as a form of Italian dance characterized by a lively hop step at the 
beginning of each measure. Music for this dance has its rhythm in quick triple or 
sextuple time and is typically characterized by skips and dotted triple rhythm. The name 
is derived from the Italian word saltarello (the French saltare) meaning "to jump." 

Fifteenth century Italian dance saw the development and categorization of dance forms. 
Tempo and Misura (Time and Measure or Time and Motion) were considered to be the 
two most important aspects of these forms: 

(slowest, elegant steps) 



Bassadanza 


6/4 


Quadernaria 


4/4 


Saltarello 


3/4, 6/8 


Piva 


2/4 



(fastest, most 'common' steps) 

In the fifteenth century dances, the saltarello step is done in three beats or one measure of 
saltarello time: 



Saltarello: Description of Performance 



1: 


Step forward on the left foot. 


2: 


Make a quick "lilt" onto the right foot ( in effect moving the weight of the 
step backwards), then step forward on the left foot. 


3: 


Hop forward on the left foot, leaving the right foot raised to commence 
the next step. 



This is only one of many interpretations of the saltarello step, and there are other 
arrangements of the steps (i.e. hop-step-lilt-step) that can be found. Manuscripts from 
this period are not completely clear on the steps and do not provide proof that one method 
of performance was preferred over another. 



10 



Activity One 

Objective: Students will recognize and learn to sing Theme One from Berlioz's Roman 
Carnival Overture using the words added for teaching the melody. 

Teach the following edition of the theme played by the English Horn in the opening 
section of the overture. 



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After students are confident with their vocal performance of this theme, additional 
activities may be coordinated using the theme. 

Suggestions: 

• Divide the class into performing groups, two to four groups per class. 



11 



• Each group is to stage their interpretation of a carnival scene in Rome, choosing to 
do so in either the nineteenth century style, or the twentieth century style. 

• Each group should incorporate the use of the theme, either playing the opening music 
from the recording of Roman Carnival Overture, or singing the theme, or perhaps 
doing both! 

• Each group will write a description of their "production." Their work must include 
their motivation/rationale for doing their scene. 

Activity Two 

Objective: Students will become familiar with the form of Italian dance identified as the 
saltarello and be able to identify its rhythmic structure. They will be able to enhance 
their understanding of the style by learning to perform a similar dance step along with 
providing an accompaniment for their dancing using a simplified Orff orchestration that 
contains the themes used by Berlioz in the second section of his Roman Carnival 
Overture. 

• Using the orchestration provided, or adapting it to individual teaching situations, 
teach the students to play the dance. 

• Teach the students the following dance steps that are outlined to fit the orchestration. 
Combine the players and dancers to create a total performance for your class. 

• Add this "scene" to the group performances you organized for Theme One and let the 
students create their own Italian style carnival scene. 



Saltarello/Tarantella 

Dance Formation 

The following dance instructions are designed to be performed with the Orchestration for 

Orff Instruments and Soprano Recorders: 



Partners facing each other, either randomly spaced throughout the room or in rows of 
four to five partners, still allowing plenty of space between each dancer and each line. 

X X X X X (Row One) 

X X X X X (Row Two) 



Introduction. 



Partners face each other, standing approximately four to five feet apart. 
Row one moves forward using saltarello dance step, starting on the 
right foot (measures 1 - 4), ending with arms held up. 



12 



A Section: 



B Section: 



C Section: 



• Row two moves forward using saltarello dance step, starting on the 
right foot (measures 5 - 8), ending with arms held up and standing 
about two feet from their partner. 

• Starting with the right hand, each partner snaps four times with arms in 
the air. (These beats are marked in the score: (measures 8-11.) (Snap 
R, L, R, L) 

• Each partner circles to their right, again using three saltarello steps, 
and ends facing their partner, still about two feet apart (measures 12 - 
15). 

• On the repeat, they need to end facing each other, this time standing 
farther apart, about four feet apart. 

• The partners use three saltarello steps to move toward each other with 
hands on hips, (measures 16-18), and pat hands across on the last 
measure (measure 19) where the tambourines play. 

• On the repeat, the partners move away from each other and clap their 
hands on the last measure. 

• Forward, Back, Forward, Back (for a total of 4 repeats of this motif). 

• Partners hold hands across, and perform a "step/kick front" at an 
angle, starting with the left foot. Step left, kick right; step right, kick 
left; repeating this pattern (measures 20 - 26). 



Performance Form: 



• Introduction A B C A B C A 



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14 



Activity Three 



Objective: Students will become familiar with the biographical material concerning the 
romantic composer Hector Berlioz and with the description of his composition Roman 
Carnival Overture, Op. 9. Students will become familiar with vocabulary used in this 
material and be able to recognize words associated with this study. Students will find 
these words in a word search. 




SOLUTION TO WORD SEARCH 



15 



WORD SEARCH 



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HECTOR 

BERLIOZ 

FRENCH 

ROMANTIC 

COMPOSER 

PARIS 

CONDUCTOR 

CRITIC 

ORCHESTRA 



OVERTURE 

ROMAN 

CARNIVAL 

THEMES 

ITALY 

ANDANTE 

ENGLISH HORN 

ALLEGRO 

SALTARELLO 



NC SYMPHONY 



16 



0:00 - 0:04 



0:04-0:09 



Call Chart for Roman Carnival Overture 

Following Time Sequence for CD Play 



6/8 Meter 
J. = 156 



0:09-0:12 3/4 Meter 



Introduction: Wild 
Flourish from saltarello 

Tremolo: Strings 

Woodwinds, Brass 
Trumpet Fanfare 



t 






Allegro Assai 
con fuoco 



0:13-0:22 



Clarinet w/ Trumpet 
on o 



£<£>£ Andante sostenuto 



0:22-1:24 4 = 52 



1:24- 1:45 



English Horn introduces 
Theme One: Love Theme 
Pizz. String accompaniment 

Theme One: Viola 
Counter Melody: Flutes and 
Clarinets 



H 



Expressivo 



1:46-2:14 



Theme One: Viola / 

English Horn: ascending pattern 

of dotted rhythms, saltarello style «^ 



2:14-3:02 



Theme One: in canon ^ 

• Bassoon, Viola, Cello 

• Flute, Oboe, Eng. Horn, Violin 

• Tambourine and Triangle added p. 



3:02-3:17 



Cello leads strings, woodwinds into 
dramatic resolution of Section One 



3:17-3:30 



3:30-3:38 3/4 Meter 



J 



Strings, Woodwinds 


H 


dolce 


conclude Section One 


<V> 




lead into Section Two 


eUtK. 

V 




Section Two begins 




Poco animato 



Intro: Wild flourish (3X) 
Saltarello Theme: Woodwinds 
Timpani, tambourine 



17 



Call Chart Continued 



3:38-3:55 


6/8 Meter 


Saltarello Motif One: schezo 






J. 


-152 


Strings and woodwinds (3x) 




3:56-4:11 






Saltarello Motif Two 

• (3:56) violins 

• (3:59) violins w/ woodwinds 

• (4:02) violins 

• (4:05) violins w/ woodwinds 




4:11 -4:12 






Brass fanfare introduction of 


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Theme Two 

Timpani, cymbal, triangle, and 

Tambourine 



Allegro vivace 



4:12-4:38 



4:38-4:44 



4:44-4:49 



Theme Two 

• (4:12) Theme Two U 
flute, oboe, clarinet, violin 

• (4:17) Theme Two $ 
flute, oboe, clarinet, violin 
bassoon 

• (4:22) Theme Two U 
flute, oboe, clarinet, violin 
bassoon 

• (4:27) Theme Two U 
Variation 

Saltarello Motif One: U 

Strings to woodwinds 

Motif One: Flute, oboe, clarinet 
Strings w/ rhythmic accomp. 



:49- 


-4:56 


Motif One: wild, frenzied 
Full orchestra incl. triangle 
and tambourine 


u 




:56- 


- 5:16 


Motif Two 










• (4 


56) oboe, bassoon, violin 


fa 








• (4 


59) 


fa 








• (5 


02) 




poco cresc. 






• (5 


05) 




poco cresc. 






• (5 


08) 




cresc. Molto 



18 



5:16-5:49 



5:49-5:50 2/4 Meter 



• (5:11) Builds to bridge the return 
to Theme Two 



Theme Two 

(5:17) flute, oboe, clarinet, violin 

(5:21) 

(5:27) 

(5:32) variation 

(5:38) variation 



Brief Time Sig. Change 
two measures 



5:51-6:07 6/8 Meter Theme Two begins to fade 



6:07-6:11 

6:11-6:19 

6:20-6:28 

6:22-6:27 
6:27-6:41 
6:41-6:46 

6:46-7:01 
7:01-7:12 

7:12-7:23 



7:23 - 7: 56 2/4 Meter 
(7 meas.) 
6/8 Meter 



Saltarello fades to throbbing 
rhythm: viola 

Bassoon enters with opening 
strains of Theme One 

Trombone enters with opening 
strains of Theme One 

Theme One: flute, oboe 

Theme One: clarinet 

Theme Two 
Woodwinds, strings 

Theme Two: Strings in canon 

Theme One: Trombone 
opening strains 

Melodic/rhythmic 'tag' with 
saltarello: woodwinds, strings 

Dramatic conclusion with full 
Orchestration, musical melee 

• (7:30) Theme Two heard again: 
strings and woodwinds 






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19 



Overture, Roman Carnival, Op. 9 

Hector Berlioz 





INTRO 



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Second Theme: Strings 
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21 



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Fortissimo and Crescendo 



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22 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Barlow, Harold and Sam Mortenstren. A Dictionary of Musical Themes. New York, New 
York: Crown Publisher, Inc., 1968. 

Brownell, David and Nancy Conkle. Great Composer, Bach to Berlioz. Santa Barbara, 
California: Bellerophon Books, 1996. (ISBN# 0-88288-058-X) 

Clarson-Leach, Robert. The Illustrated Lives of the Great Composers. New York, New 
York: Omnibus Press/Music Sales Corporation, 1987. (ISBN # 0-71 99-0829-X) 

Downes, Edward. Guide to Symphonic Music. New York, New York: Walker Publishing 
Company, Incorporated, 1981. 

Hoffer, Charles R. The Understanding of Music. Belmont, California: Wadsworth 
Publishing Company, Inc., 1968. 

Webster, Miraim. Webster 's Third New International Dictionary of the English 

Language Unabridged. Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopaedia Britannica,Inc, 1981. 



Bibliography of Internet Resources 

Using Infoseek: 

Re: Saltarello. Fifteenth Century Dance Steps: 

http://www.sca.org.au/del/ddb/15thc02.htm 

(This site is best found searching for Italian 15 Century Dance) 

Re: Biographical Material on Hector Berlioz: 

http://home.pon.net/dougie/berlioz.htm 

http://www.bbc.co.wk/radio3/composer/week32.shtml 

Re: Berlioz: Family Photographs and Portraits; La Cote St. -Andre; Scenes from 

Shakespeare 

htt p://www.stan drews.u-net.com 

http://www.standrews.u-net.com/BerliozPhotos.html 

http://www.standrews.u-net.com/BerliozLacote.html 

Re: Pictures from Opera Scenes (Berlioz) 
http://www.st.andrews.u-net.com/paintings.html 

Re: Literature and Styles in Music - Hector Berlioz 
http://gbms01 .uwgb.edu/ ~ogradyt/Is3/berlioz.htm 



23 



Re: Literature and Styles in Music - Hector Berlioz 
http://gbms01.uwgb.edu/~ogradyt/Is3/berlioz.htm 



Re: Roman Carnival Overture 
http://ficus-www.cs.ucla.edu/project-memb. . ./carnivalOv.htm 

Re: Hector Berlioz 
http://www.unc.edu/home/thangle/links/berlioz.htm 



Jane C. Hoch is currently teaching third - fifth grade music-dance-drama at Morrisville 
Year-Round Elementary, where she has taught for eight years, and has been with the 
year-round educational program in Wake County since it began at Kingswood 
Elementary School. She received her B.S. in Music Education from Tennessee 
Technological University in 1970 and her M.A.T. in Music from the University of North 
Carolina-Chapel Hill in 1982. She also completed her Master Level Orff-Schulwerk 
Certification from the University of Memphis in 1979. 

Jane is married to Arthur E. (Buddy) Hoch and has two daughters, Heather (just married 
on June the 12 th !) and Lindsey (age fourteen and soon to begin her high school studies at 
Athens Drive High School in Raleigh). 

A special thank you to my family and my colleagues at Morrisville Elementary who 
were patient and provided support during this project. 



24 



"DANSE MACABRE" Classroom Activities by 

CAMILLE SAINT-SAENS Karen Bottjen and Angela McHenry 

BIOGRAPHY 

Camille Saint-Saens was born in Paris, France on October 9, 1835, to Jacques Joseph 
Victor, a government employee in the Ministry of the Interior of Paris, and Clemence 
Francoise Collin, a carpenter's daughter. His father died when he was three months old. 
Saint-Saens was raised by his mother and great-aunt. 

Saint-Saens began taking piano lessons from his great-aunt and completed his first 
exercise book at the age of two-and-a-half. By age three, he learned musical notation, 
composed his first piece of music, and discovered that he had perfect pitch. When he was 
seven, he began studying composition and the organ and held his first public recital on 
May 6, 1846, at Salle Playel. At the recital, Saint-Saens performed two piano concertos, 
one by Mozart and the other by Beethoven. 

In 1848, Saint-Saens entered the Paris Conservatory and in 1851 won first prize in the 
organ class of Benoist. Saint-Saens loved studying philosophy, astronomy, and 
archaeology and later wrote books on philosophy, literature, painting, and theater. In 
addition to musical talent, Saint-Saens had a gift for caricature as exemplified by his 
drawings in the following pages. He composed a piece entitled Ode a Sainte-Cecile, 
which won him first prize in a competition in 1852, and two symphonies that were 
recorded but never published. At age eighteen he wrote his first symphony to be 
published, the E-flat Symphony. His second published symphony was written at age 
twenty-four. 

In 1853, Saint-Saens left the conservatory and entered his first post as organist at the 
Church Saint-Merry, where he became known as an organ virtuoso. Four years later, he 
became an organist at the Madeleine, where he remained for twenty years. Writing music, 
performing publicly, and editing works of the masters opened avenues for his great 
intellect and boundless energy. 

From 1861 to 1865, Saint-Saens taught at Ecole Niedermeyer, which was founded 
to improve French church musical standards. While at Ecole Niedermeyer, he instructed 
Andre Messager and Gabriel Faure, then he collaborated with Romain Bussine to establish 
the Societe Nationale de Musique to promote the new music of French composers. 

In 1875, at nearly forty years of age, Saint-Saens married the nineteen-year-old Marie 
Truffot. Saint-Saens and Marie had two sons who died tragically within a brief time 
period. Their eldest son died at age two-and-a-half after a fall from a window and, just 
weeks later, the youngest son died in infancy from an illness. Saint-Saens blamed his 
wife for the deaths of their children and the strain of the losses apparently lead to their 
separation shortly thereafter. In the years to follow, his one-time pupil Faure became his 
surrogate son. 



25 



In 1888, Saint-Saens' mother died, which caused him to become withdrawn and interested 
only in his dogs as companions. He traveled extensively, usually using various aliases 
during his excursions to ensure his privacy. In 1915, he visited America, and by the age of 
eighty-five he had traveled to South America, Algiers, and Greece. On August 6, 1921, 
Saint-Saens gave the final public performance of his piano works and two weeks later 
conducted his last orchestral concert. He died suddenly in Algiers on December 16, 1921. 
Saint-Saens was buried in Paris with much recognition. 

HIS MUSIC 

Saint-Saens once wrote, "The artist who does not feel completely satisfied by elegant 
lines, by harmonious colors, and by a beautiful succession of chords does not understand 
the art of music." (Cross and Ewen, Encyclopedia of Great Composers and Their Music, 
p. 657) His works have clarity, balance, proportion, and precision, which make them a 
pleasure to listen to. 

He "...followed the lead of Berlioz in championing instrumental music in France." (Lloyd, 
Golden Encyclopedia of Music, p. 499) Absolute music, usually in ordinary meter—duple 
or triple (compound)-- was his specialty. Many times he repeated rhythmic patterns for 
style or to create an exciting atmosphere. Saint-Saens was considered a conservative 
musician due to the correctness in the structure of his pieces. He had great technique and 
was able to recreate foreign music, early 16th and 17th century dance music, and preludes 
and fugues of the 18th century. In addition to his mastery of form and improvisation, 
Saint-Saens was also regarded as an organ virtuoso of his time. 

In his lifetime, Saint-Saens composed a total of 169 works of music. The most famous of 
these works include Carnival of the Animals, "Danse macabre," and Samson and Delilah. 
He cared deeply about his reputation and forbade Carnival of the Animals to be 
performed during his lifetime because it was a private joke he wrote for himself while on 
vacation. In some of the pieces, he parodied the works of others, including his own 
"Danse macabre". A small portion of the melody can be heard in the "Fossils" movement. 

Major works: 

12 operas 8 incidental stage works orchestral suites 

5 symphonies 4 symphonic (tone) poems piano & violin pieces 

5 piano concertos 2 cello concertos sacred works 

1 oratorio chamber music 

"DANSE MACABRE" 



This piece was inspired by a poem of the same title written by Henri Cazalis. Saint-Saens' 
music follows the story exactly. It was originally written as a song with words, but this 
version was later discarded as unsingable in favor of the orchestral piece. Written in 1874, 
this piece was first performed in 1875. When first heard in London, "Danse macabre" was 
reviewed by one critic as, "...one of the many signs of the intense and coarse realism that is 
entering into the musical composition- so-called- of the day." (Bagar and Biancolli, The 
Concert Companion: A Comprehensive Guide to Symphonic Music, p. 592) 



26 



The music begins with the harp striking twelve times for midnight with chords in the 
background. Death tunes his violin and the flute takes up a theme in a G minor waltz style. 
The solo violin takes up the melody. Whirling grows and intensifies, while the xylophone 
rattles like bones. Themes intertwine and the tempo speeds. Horns announce the dawn. 
The oboe gives the rooster's call and the violin plays a sad tune while holding a long trill. 
Echoes like the beginning are heard, sounding like footsteps, before the last two chords 
are softly plucked. 

THE POEM: "DANSE MACABRE" 

A free translation of the poem by Cazalis is given by Bagar: 

Zig, zig, zig, Death is striking a tomb with his heel in cadence. Death is playing a 
dance tune on his violin at midnight. The winter wind blows and the night is dark. 
From the linden trees come moans. White skeletons move across the shadows, 
running and leaping in their shrouds. Zig, zig, zig, each one gives a tremor, and the 
dancers' bones rattle. Hush! they suddenly leave off dancing, they jostle one 
another, they flee, the cock has crowed (Bagar and Biancolli, p. 591). 

SYMPHONIC POEMS 

"Danse macabre" is considered program music and not absolute music, because it relates 

to a program or specific idea, work of art, concept, or, as in this case, poem. Program 

music was extremely popular in the Romantic era during which Camille Saint-Saens 

wrote. 

Composers frequently imitated the sounds of nature in their compositions to connote 

specific objects to their listeners. But primarily, composers attempted to convey the 

emotions, mood, and atmosphere surrounding their subject. 

Since "Danse macabre" is based on a poem of the same name by Henri Cazalis, symphonic 
poem best describes the form of the composition. Franz Liszt is credited with developing 
the symphonic poem in the middle 1800's. This form consists of one movement that may 
be in any variety of the classical forms: sonata, rondo, or theme and variation. Saint-Saens 
chose an irregular form that seems to combine some elements of both the rondo and 
sonata form, and almost fugue-like imitation. 

Within this free form he chose, Saint-Saens develops two primary contrasting themes that 
are heard throughout the composition. The first of these themes is almost brittle sounding 
with staccato eighth notes giving the impression qf skeletal bones. Soon after, the second 
theme is heard, which is reminiscent of the wind sighing, or even the wail of ghosts. In 
addition to these two themes, there are several minor themes or motifs that appear briefly 
and can be attributed to different incidents that occur throughout the poem. The first of 
these is heard near the beginning of the composition when "Death" tunes his fiddle, 
indicating the "Zig, Zig, Zig" that opens the poem. Another interesting one is heard 
several times as the xylophone plays a fragment or variation of the first theme. At another 
point in the music the tonality shifts to major as the ancient chant, Dies Irae (Day of 
Wrath), is heard as a waltz tune for several measures. Throughout the 



27 



composition, Saint-Saens uses the unique colors of the instruments of the orchestra to 

depict specific events in the original poem. 

Like many symphonic poems of the Romantic era, "Danse macabre" imitates natural 
sounds. This is first done through the chiming of the clock striking midnight at the opening 
of this composition. Saint-Saens achieves this effect with a harp playing against the 
background of soft chords. Towards the end of the piece, a very realistic cock crowing is 
heard, played by a solo oboe, signaling the break of dawn. Soft chords and tremolo sound 
like the scurrying of the ghosts as they return to their graves for the end of the song and 
the beginning of the day. True to the Romantic era in which he wrote, Saint-Saens creates 
a definite mood or atmosphere throughout "Danse macabre" that evokes a strong 
emotional response in the listener. 

INITIAL LISTENING ACTIVITIES 

Activity 1: Using a Circle Map 

Tell the students they are going to listen to a famous piece of music that is classified as a 
symphonic poem. It was based upon a piece of poetry. Next, hand out circle maps (see 
worksheet). As students listen, have them write down any ideas of what they think the 
poem that inspired it was about, and what they hear musically, (i.e., instruments, 
dynamics, repeated melodies, high, low, etc.), as well as the feelings the music suggests to 
them. The students will write this on the circle map (inside the middle circle). In the square 
have students tell where in "real life" they might hear this work. Then, lead a discussion on 
their thoughts. An extension of this activity that will incorporate language arts is to have 
the students write their thoughts on the circle map and then write a short paragraph 
describing what they heard. 

Activity 2: Listening Experience with a Call Chart 

Show the students the call chart discussing the different pictures and relate to the different 
themes or motives that occur in the piece. Play each theme before listening so that the 
students can recognize each one as they hear it in context. Have the students follow along 
on the overhead projector as they listen to "Danse macabre". Discuss the significance of 
using the trees, branches, and leaves as images in the original poem. 

COMPOSITION ACTIVITY/ORFF ACTIVITY 

Composition requires extensive preparation and adequate framework and structure for the 
children to be successful. However, care must be taken not to stifle all spontaneity and 
creativity. The following activity is very flexible to allow for the individual needs of the 
teachers and students. 

Use any descriptive poem. 

• Hallowe 'en by Harry Baker ( Beethoven et al., The Music Connection, Grade 5, pg. 
207) 

• any original poem written by students 

The students will choose instruments to accompany a reading or singing of the selected 
poem. Simple percussion instruments work well, especially if students are encouraged to 



28 



use them in unique ways. For example, a tambourine may be shaken or tapped, but an 
interesting sound occurs when the head is lightly scratched. Sandblocks make great 
rustling and rasping sounds. Other good instruments include tone blocks, rhythm sticks, 
finger cymbals, and drums. 
Below are listed some guidelines to help the students compose their song. 

• Students should work together in small groups of 3 to 5 children. 

• Each composition must maintain a steady beat throughout. 

• Words of the poem may be spoken or sung individually or as a group. Suggest that the 
students experiment with different combinations of voices and timbres. 

• The accompaniment may occur simultaneously with the reading of the poem, or the 
students may choose to alternate text and instrumentation. 

• The final composition may not be improvised; the students should be able to repeat 
their performance. Written directions with assigned parts may be helpful. 

• If a longer poem is chosen, such as Hallowe 'en, each group of students may work on 
one verse. The verses may then be combined to perform the full piece. 

AUTHENTIC TASK ACTIVITY 

You are a composer, and the director of the new sequel to Halloween 13 has asked you to 
compose music to accompany the opening scene for the movie. In this scene the lights 
slowly come up, gradually revealing a shadowy figure disappearing into the depths of a 
deserted old Victorian mansion. Tattered curtains flutter out from shattered window panes 
as the door slowly swings on its rusty hinges. The moon peers in and out from behind the 
wind blown clouds, and leaves rustle across the brown, barren yard. Trees stand wearily, 
moaning and creaking through the gusty night, their stark bare branches stretching long 
bony fingers-- as if to hold the clouds fast, shadowing the moon and its pale light. 

This scene lasts 90 seconds, and your composition may include any instruments that are 
available to you. The director has specified that at least the first eight notes of the ancient 
chant Dies Irae must be incorporated in this music. Dies Irae means Day of Wrath, and 
has been sung at the mass for the dead for hundreds of years. The director requires some 
form of a written score to be submitted within four weeks; standard or unconventional 
notation will be accepted. A ruberic is given below for accuracy and quality. (See musical 
notation example below of the Dies Irae. It is NOT in the same key as the orchestral 
recording.) 




"Dies Irae" 



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80 to 89 seconds 


less than 80 sec. 






91 to 99 seconds 


more than 100 sec 


Dies Irae 


8 correct tones 


6-7 correct tones 


5 or less tones 


musical score 


understandable 


unclear 


unreadable 


INTEGRATING INTO THE CURRICULUM 





LANGUAGE ARTS 

Activity 1: Read the rough translation of the poem (pp. 2-3). Have students focus on 
the element of the wind. Listen to the music, have students briefly write down the sounds 
in the music they think reflect the wind. Discuss with the students the varied sounds the 
wind makes in a graveyard at midnight, in a meadow, in a city, or in any other visual place 
with which they might be familiar. Next, have students create a haiku poem based on their 
impressions above. (A haiku is an unrhymed poem, consisting of seventeen syllables. 
There are three lines to the poem and these form the pattern: 1st line- 5 syllables, 2nd line- 
7 syllables, 3rd line- 5 syllables). It often describes something in nature. An example of a 
haiku follows: Butterflies zooming, 

Flying all through the meadow. 

How lightly they float. 
An extension of this activity or a substitution would be to use the imagery of the trees 
since these are also suggested in the poem. 

Activity 2: From the rhyme form of the poem found in The Music Connection, Grade 
5, teacher's edition, p. 23 5, have the students figure out the rhyme scheme of the poem. 
Label its parts with the appropriate poetry type that best fits. Possible poetry types and 
descriptions are as follows: 
Couplet - a pair of lines that rhyme. A couplet may be complete in itself or it might be a 

part of a longer poem. 
Quatrain - is a four-line poem. The rhyme scheme may be aabb, abab, abcb, or abba. 

Often these are combined to form a longer poem. 
Limerick- a humorous five-line poem made up of thirteen beats and having a rhyme 

scheme oiaabba. 
Cinquain- an unrhymed five-line poem. Each line has a set number of words and a specific 

function. 

Activity 3: Give the students the story prompt: "One dark and stormy night, I was 
walking home when I passed the city cemetery. All of a sudden...." 

Have students finish the story. 

Activity 4: Show the students how to sequence the events in the poem by creating or 
using a flow map. (See example, Beethoven, pg. 235) You might have the students then 



30 



listen to "Danse macabre" and create their own listening flow map by showing the many 
themes of the music. 

VISUAL ARTS: Have the students create a visual flow map of the poem or the 
musical themes by giving them a chance to draw pictorial representations of each. 

DRAMA ACTIVITY: Give students a chance to act out the events in the poem. 

You might assign them to work in groups as trees, dancers, the wind, Death, skeletons, 
etc. Also, have the students perform their actions to the music and observe whether they 
can hear where their part should come by the sounds the music suggests. 

MOVEMENT ACTIVITY: Once the students are very familiar with the different 

themes of the music, decide together if they are staccato or legato. You will want to do 
movements that reflect this. For theme 1 (staccato)-have students tap the rhythm of this 
theme on their knees. For theme 2 (legato)-teach the students the triplet step. This is a 
simple step-tiptoe-tiptoe, step-tiptoe-tiptoe pattern that matches the waltz feel of the 
music. For theme 3 (staccato)-have students snap or clap the rhythm of the this theme; for 
theme 4 (staccato)-have students match their feet stepping lightly to the rhythm of the 
theme. Form a circle and do the movements to the music as the themes occur. You keep 
their attention focused on the music while providing your kinesthetic learners with an 
opportunity to move. 

TECHNOLOGY: Listed below are some Internet addresses that you may find useful 
for your students. A brief description of each is included. 

"DANSE MACABRE": 

http//:albie. wcupa.edu/schmus.mue/sum97/projectl/Danse.htm. 

• Plays the music of "Danse macabre". 

• Gives the poem in its rhymed form. 

• Shows the actual music notation of the themes. 

• Shows pictorial representations of the themes. 

• Romantic period information is included along with art examples from Saint-Saens' 
lifetime. 

• Games for identifying the themes are included. 

• Lesson standards that correlate with MENC National Music standards are listed. 

RELATED MUSIC: 



http://hyperion.advanced.org/22673/saint-saens.html 

• Gives a biography of Saint-Saens and shows his picture. 

• Provides a summary of his compositional style. 

http://www.tcimet.net/mmclass/mudpie/s.html 

• Lists some of the pieces in Carnival of the Animals. 

• Will play these pieces in midi format for you. 



31 




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34 



CALL CHART GUIDE FOR "DANSE MACABRE" 

0:03 - 0: 19 Chiming of the clock, plucked by the harp 

0:20 - 0:25 Footsteps plucked by the cellos and basses 

0:26-0:33 Death tuning the violin 

0:34-0:41 Theme I played by the flute (tree) 

0:41 - 0:48 Theme I played by the whole orchestra 

0:49 - 1 :03 Theme II played by the violins 

1 :04 - 1:17 Fragment I oboe question answered by the violin 

1:18- 1:20 Violin chords as heard in the beginning 

1:21 - 1:36 Theme I, whole orchestra 

1:36- 1:52 Theme II, whole orchestra 

1:53 - 1:55 Theme I, violin 

1:55 - 1:59 Theme III, xylophone 

1:59-2:02 Theme I 

2:02 - 2:05 Theme III, xylophone 

2:05 - 2:09 Violin chords 

2:09-2:40 Theme II, fugal (5 leaves) 

2:41 - 2:53 Theme IV " Dies Irae" with cymbal taps 

2:53 - 3:06 Crescendo with the triangle in the background 

3 : 07 - 3 : 1 5 Theme II fragment, violin (4 leaves) 

3:15-3:21 Theme II, horn/flute 

3:21 - 3:30 Theme II fragment, violin 

3:30-3:38 Theme II fragment, strings 

3 :38 - 3 :45 String glissando up/down 

3:45-3:51 Theme III fragment 

3:51 - 4:01 Theme II, fragment imitation 

4:01-4:08 Theme III, crescendo 

4:08 - 4:28 Themes I and III, fragments (zigzag lines) 

4:28-4:31 Timpani 

4:31 - 4:42 Falling woodwind part and branch (theme III) repeated twice 

4:42-4:52 Violin chords similar to the beginning 

4:53-5:04 Sad violin tune (sad face) 

5:04-5:12 Dramatic, movie-like, strings (bridge) 

5:13-5:22 Orchestra FF 

5:23-5:28 Theme I fragments, trumpet 

5:29-5:31 Crescendo 

5:32 - 5:44 Themes I and II at the same time 

5:44-6:07 Orchestra with wailing strings 

6:07-6:23 Rhythmic and dynamic intensity in the whole orchestra 

6:23 - 6:25 Horn call 

6:25 - 6:29 Rooster call by oboe 

6:29-6:38 Strings tremelo/ soft timpani background (falling leaves) 

6:39 - 6:57 Sad violin tune (sad face) 

6:58 - 7:04 Violin trills (leaves) 

7:04-7:06 Footsteps scurry away and last two chords are plucked 



35 






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Name: 



Date: 



WORD SCRAMBLE 

Unscramble these words and phrases that come from the information we have studied 
about Camille Saint-Saens. 

1 . MICNOTAR 



2. UFEAR 



3.POOMSCRE 



4. MPSYYHON 



5. TAOROCEHS 



6. TBAESUOL 



7. EESIDAIR 



8. GAAIROCRPMTM 

9. ACREFN __ ___ 

10. PS AIR 



11. YASRVNOOTCR 



12. OOSRGOAUTNRVI 



13. ACRRTEUIAC 



14. FAASVNNA1LCMOLIA 



15. MYPEHCISNOOMP 



Absolute 

Composer 

Faure 

Organ Virtuoso 

Programmatic 



WORD LIST 

Carnival of Animals 
Conservatory 
France 
Paris 
Symphonic Poem 



Caricature 
Dies Irae 
Orchestra 
Romantic 
Symphony 



41 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bagar, Robert and Louis Biancolli. The Concert Companion: A Comprehensive Guide 

to Symphonic Music. New York, New York: Philharmonic Society of New York, 

1947. 
Beethoven, Jane, et al. The Music Connection,Grade 5. Morristown , New Jersey: Silver 

Burdett, Inc., 1995. 
Cross, Milton and David Ewen. Milton Cross ' Encyclopedia of the Great Composers and 

Their Music, Vol.11. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 

1962. 
Innovative Sciences Group. Thinking Maps: Tools for Learning. Cary, North Carolina: 

Innovative Sciences, Inc., 1995. 
Lloyd, Norman. Golden Encyclopedia of Music. New York, New York: Western 

Publishing Company, 1968. 
Mordden, Ethan. A Guide to Orchestral Music: The Handbook for Non-Musicians. 

New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. 
Spaeth, Sigmund. A Guide to Great Orchestral Music. New York, New York: 

Random House, Inc., 1943. 
Sadie, Stanley, Editor. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, Vol.16. 

London: Macmillan Publishers, Limited., 1990. 



Karen Bottjen has been a public music educator for the past twelve years in Craven 
County and is the general music specialist at Roger Bell Elementary in Havelock. She also 
has a private piano and voice studio. Currently, she serves as the youth and folk choir 
director and plays for the early service at Centenary Methodist Church in New Bern. 
Karen has performed as a soloist in recitals and community chorus productions in Craven 
County. 



Angela McHenry also teaches in Craven County at J.T. Barber Elementary School. J.T. 
Barber currently is working on becoming an A+ school. They have full-time visual art, 
creative movement, drama, music, and physical education teachers on staff. Mrs. McHenry 
received her Bachelor of Music degree in General /Choral Music Education from the 
University of North Carolina at Greensboro. She is an active member of Garber United 
Methodist Church, directing one of the children's choirs and participating in the chancel 
choir and adult handbells. She and her husband, Dave, live in New Bern with their beloved 
dog, Hoover. 



42 



Dance Episodes from Rodeo Classroom Activities 

Saturday Night Waltz & Hoe-Down by Vivian Byrd 

Aaron Copland (1900-1990) 

Aaron Copland was born on November 14, 1900, the fifth child of Russian immigrant 
parents. According to one account, the spelling of his father's surname was established in 
England a couple of years before he arrived in the United States in the late 1870s. Another 
story says that the original Russian surname was Kaplan, and that it was incorrectly 
spelled "Copland" on immigration papers into the United States. 

There was no indication as young Aaron Copland was growing up on a drab street in 
Brooklyn that he would become one of America's foremost composers. Since violin 
lessons for an older brother and piano lessons for an older sister had seemed to his parents 
to be a waste of money, they did not intend to do the same for Aaron. When he attended a 
Paderewski piano recital at the age of thirteen, the young man commandeered his sister to 
give him lessons. Eventually he was successful in acquiring the instruction of local teacher 
Leopold Wolfsohn. When Copland was sixteen, his piano teacher arranged for him to 
study harmony with Rubin Goldmark, who was dedicated to Beethoven, Wagner, and 
Fuchs. He gained good fundamentals in harmony, but found that this was not where he 
could experiment with anything new. Goldmark tried to prevent Copland from becoming 
"contaminated" by the sounds of Mussorgsky, Debussy, Ravel, and Scriabin, and Ives. 
Copland reserved his compositions in the modern vein to the privacy of his own home. 

After Copland graduated from Boys' High School in Brooklyn in 1918, he decided to 
make music his career. After a couple of years of longing to study in Europe, he was the 
first student to be admitted to a new music school for Americans in Fontainebleau, France. 
Every serious musician of the time wanted to study in Europe. Aaron used his savings and 
some family financial supplements to enable him to live in Paris. His studies with 
Frenchman Paul Vidal were as academic and unappealing as those with Goldmark. After 
he sat in on a harmony class conducted by Nadia Boulanger, Aaron realized that he had 
found in her a teaching approach that appealed to him. Like most men of that time, he had 
some hesitations in studying with a woman, but took advantage of her decisive influence. 
He admitted that he found her instruction to be "powerful" and "exhilarating." 

While in Paris, Copland came in contact with many internationally famous composers and 
conductors, and attended Diaghilev ballets. He traveled to England, Belgium, and Italy, 
and spent summers in Berlin, Vienna, and Salzburg. At the same time that he carefully 
studied music in the Austrian and German vein, Copland was beginning to cultivate an 
interest in jazz. He longed to be recognizably American in his style of composition. 

Copland returned to the United States in 1 924 having already written a ballet, among 
other compositions. Nadia Boulanger had also commissioned him to write a symphony for 
orchestra and organ that she would perform while visiting this country. Copland 
supplemented his income by giving private lessons and playing the piano with a trio at a 
resort hotel. That fall the emerging League of Composers accepted two of his piano 
pieces for a November concert. In January of 1925 his Organ Symphony premiered with 



43 



the New York Symphony Society under the direction of Walter Damrosch. This 
discordant work was later re-scored by Copland, omitting the organ. 

Although Damrosch had not been fond of Copland's work, the musical director of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra, Serge Koussevitzky, was greatly impressed. He saw to it 
that the symphony was performed in Boston a month after its New York premiere. He 
also invited Copland to compose music for a concert that he had promised the New York 
League of Composers. Over the years Koussevitzky continued to introduce many of 
Copland's compositions. 

After Copland's departure from Paris, he found that being a composer did not yield an 
adequate income. Winning the Guggenheim Fellowship in 1925 and renewing it the next 
year gave him two years of freedom from financial pressure. During this time, Copland 
introduced a jazz concerto for piano and orchestra in Boston, followed by his Dance 
Symphony, an adaptation from his Grohg ballet. Dance won the $5,000 RCA- Victor 
prize for a symphonic work. 

Copland had returned to the United States in time to become one of the early members of 
League of Composers. He reported to its journal, Modern Music, on many famous 
composers. From 1937 until 1945 Copland served as president of the American 
Composers Alliance. He published two books, which were based on his lectures and 
articles, entitled What to Listen for in Music and Our New Music. Both books were 
widely read and translated into several languages. 

With only a few exceptions, Copland's compositions were "growing increasingly complex, 
cerebral, and esoteric." This displeased him when he assessed his works during his forties. 
His European experience had made him aware of composers in France and Germany who 
purposely composed music to reach the general populace. Faure's ideals of economy and 
refinement appealed to him, and everything about Stravinsky's compositions fascinated 
him. Not wanting to continue to distance himself from everyone but the more intellectual 
listeners, Copland sought out familiar folk and popular music. A fortuitous visit to Mexico 
in the fall of 1932 led him to a popular dance hall in Mexico City. He became intrigued 
with the native dance tunes that he heard there and soon was composing symphonic works 
that reflected the Mexican spirit. He called that first effort El Salon Mexico and 
introduced it in Mexico City on August 27, 1937, with Carlos Chavez conducting. El 
Salon Mexico was performed over the NBC Radio Network less than a year later with 
Adrian Boult conducting the NBC Symphony. It was enthusiastically received by 
audiences and critics alike and was soon recorded. Copland then realized that he was on 
the right track. 

After the auspicious reception of El Salon Mexico, Copland soon delved into American 
folk music. This led to two highly successful ballets: Billy the Kid (1938) and Rodeo 
(1942). Both were based on American Western folk songs. The Ballet Caravan 
introduced Billy the Kid on October 1 6, 1938. Rodeo was premiered by the Ballet Russe 
de Monte Carlo in New York City on October 16, 1942. In a geographical shift to the 
East, Copland proceeded to write Appalachian Spring, particularly for dancer and 
choreographer Martha Graham, who chose the title from a poem by Hart Crane. She and 
her dancers introduced it in Washington, D. C. on October 30, 1944. The source was the 



44 



mountain folk in the Shaker communities of Pennsylvania, although Copland relied more 
heavily on his own original melodies than on preexisting tunes. Not only did this ballet 
receive the New York Music Critics Circle but the symphonic suite earned the Pulitzer 
Prize in music. 

Copland, as a visiting professor at Harvard, gave lectures that were well received and then 
were published as Music and the Imagination. In 1 940, Koussevitzky established a 
summer school at the Berkshire Music Center where Copland served as chairman of the 
faculty for twenty-five summers. 

In the mid-fifties, the famous Broadway composer/lyricist team Richard Rodgers and 
Oscar Hammerstein II wanted a special way to celebrate the thirtieth anniversary of the 
League of Composers. They commissioned Copland to compose an opera. The Tender 
Land premiered in New York on April 1, 1954, and Copland continued to revise and 
refine it for several years to follow. 

Copland is credited with setting new standards for Hollywood. He described the music of 
films as having been "Dvorak-Tchaikovsky generalized music." His own command of 
various styles was evident in his many film scores, including The Red Pony and The 
Heiress, for which he won an Academy Award. This encouraged filmmakers to allow 
composers to use scores to "evoke a specific landscape." 

When Andre Kostelanetz commissioned Copland to compose a musical portrait of an 
American hero, Abraham Lincoln was eventually settled upon. Copland borrowed tunes 
from before and during Lincoln's lifetime that served as prelude and accompaniment for 
spoken excerpts from Lincoln's letters and addresses. Although there was criticism of this 
innovative style of composition from some of his colleagues, Lincoln Portrait has seen 
many uses and more performances than Appalachian Spring. 

Of all the tunes that Copland borrowed, only the Shaker tune in Appalachian Spring 
escaped his modifications with syncopation or melodic changes. It was also the only one 
that he dwelt upon through a set of variations. His main concern throughout his career 
was that of "exteriorizing inner feelings." He sought to find the sounds that gave the right 
"connotations" to awaken in the imaginative listener the ability to "relive in his own mind 
the completed revelation of the composer's thought." After Appalachian Spring and The 
Tender Land, Copland no longer seemed compelled to borrow melodies. From this point 
on, listeners seemed to have the ability to recognize and appreciate his own individual 
qualities inherent in his works. 

During his lifetime, Aaron received an astounding number of honors, including the Pulitzer 
Prize (1945), the Oscar (1950), and the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1964). He died 
on December 2, 1990, in North Tarrytown, New York of respiratory failure. 



45 



About Rodeo 

For its 1942-43 season, the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo wanted to premiere a "western 
ballet." They commissioned Aaron Copland and Agnes de Mille to collaborate on this 
project. De Mille devised the idea for such a ballet, and described it as the following: 

Throughout the American Southwest, the Saturday afternoon rodeo is a tradition. 
On the remote ranches, as well as in the trading centers and the towns, the 'hands' 
get together to show off their skill in roping, riding, branding, and throwing. Often, 
on the more isolated ranches, the rodeo is done for an audience that consists only of 
a handful of fellow- workers, women-folk, and those nearest neighbors who can 
make the eighty or so mile run-over. The afternoon's exhibition is usually followed 
by a Saturday night dance at the Ranch House. The theme of the ballet is basic. It 
deals with the problem that has confronted all American women, from earliest 
pioneer times, and which has never ceased to occupy them throughout the history of 
the building of our country: how to get a suitable man. 

Originally subtitled "The Courting at Burnt Ranch," the resulting ballet was called Rodeo. 
The composer also extracted an orchestral suite from the ballet ~ Four Dance Episodes 
from Rodeo: 

I. "Buckaroo Holiday" II. "Corral Nocturne" III. "Saturday Night Waltz" IV. Hoe- 
Down. 

Copland used Our Singing Country by John A. and Alan Lomax, and Ira Ford's 
Traditional Music of America as resources for borrowing the tunes "If He'd Be a 
Buckaroo by His Trade" and "Sis Joe" for "Buckaroo Holiday "; "I Ride an Old Paint" 
for "Saturday Night Waltz"; and "Bonyparte," a square dance tune, for "Hoe-Down." He 
used his own original music for "Corral Nocturne." Arthur Fiedler and the Boston Pops 
Orchestra used three episodes on May 28, 1943, and the entire suite was premiered two 
months later by the New York Philharmonic Symphony under Alexander Smallens. 

The Story 

The heroine of the story does not seem much like one at the opening of the ballet. A 
tomboy, the Cowgirl tries to get the attention of the cowboys, especially the Head 
Wrangler and the Champion Roper, at the weekly rodeo. She does relatively well in the 
competitions, but when she is thrown by the bucking bronco, she becomes a 
laughingstock. Only one cowhand, the Roper, shows her any kindness. The Cowgirl's 
disappointment and mortification are evident as the Head Wrangler leaves with the 
Rancher's Daughter; so ends the first scene. 

The second and final scene takes place in the ranch house, setting for the Saturday night 
dance The cheerful scene of dancing couples is observed by the dejected Cowgirl, who is 
still dressed in her shirt and pants. She is hardly noticed by the Champion Roper, and no 
one asks her to dance. The sight of the Head Wrangler and the Rancher's daughter being 
extremely attentive to one another sends the Cowgirl running from the dance. Before long 
the cowgirl reappears — a vision of feminine loveliness — in a dress, her cascading hair 
caught in a bow. It is not long before the cowboys begin vying for her attention. Even 



46 



the Head Wrangler asks her to dance. Instead, she chooses to dance with the Roper, the 
one cowboy who had shown her some kindness earlier in the day. The curtain closes on 
the Cowgirl, who, we suppose, has finally "found her man." 

Questions 

1 . Where did Aaron Copland grow up? 

2. How old was Copland when he began to study a musical instrument? Which musical 
instrument? 

3. Where did Copland go to study composition after graduating from high school? 

4. What woman greatly influenced the development of Copland's early composition style? 

5. What country was Copland trying to portray with his very first uses of folk music? 

6. The ballets Billy the Kid and Rodeo portrayed life in what part of this country? 

7. Copland is said to have called himself a "Brooklyn cowboy." What do you think he meant 
by that? 

8. Copland wanted to be thought of as a composer who was "recognizably American." Do 
you think that he accomplished that? Why or why not? 



Ordering Information 

Copies of the North Carolina Symphony education publications and compact discs can be ordered 
from the Symphony office. For ordering information write to Janice Jordan, The North Carolina 
Symphony, 2 East South Street, Raleigh, NC 27601. Telephone 919-733-2750 ext.230. Fax 
919-733-9920. 

Please place orders early enough to allow for two weeks delivery time; materials are available as 
long as supplies last. Orders must be accompanied by a check or purchase order. 



47 



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48 



Singing Activity 

"Saturday Night Waltz" Themes 

Principal theme based on "I Ride an Old Paint' 



m 



5 



gzzazza * j • -» 



1 



jt~ 9 j. * ■ * — *- 

I ride an old paint and I lead an old dan, I'm going to Mon-tan-a for to throw the hoo-li-han, 



5 



TO j h 



1 



m- m m 



*• * * 



— 



They feed in the cou-lees and wa-ter in the draw, Their tails are all mat-ted and their backs are all raw. 



REFRAIN 




Get a - long, lit-tle do-gies,get a - long- there- slow, For the fier-y and the snuf-fy are a - rar - in' to go. 



Secondary theme 



Now the Hoe 



Down's- 



o - ver. 



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— -0 



And I'm head 



ing- 



off. 



for home. 



49 



0:00 


1 


0:31 


19 


0:57 


29 


1:00 


30 


1:23 


40 


1:41 


48 


2:02 


56 


2:06 


57 


2:16 


61 


2:31 


72 


3:14 


96 


3:27 


103 



"Saturday Night Waltz" Call Chart 

Prior to using call charts, students should know how each instrument looks and sounds, 
how its name is spelled and pronounced, and, of course, the family to which it belongs. 
For "Saturday Night Waltz" they should be familiar with "I Ride an Old Paint" as well as 
the transitional and secondary themes. Play the recording of "Saturday Night Waltz" 
while students follow a transparency of the following: 

Time Measures Description 

Introduction 

"Tuning up" — Strings joined by brasses (1)* 

Principal theme ("I Ride an Old Paint") — Melody in oboe (2)* 

Night bird sound in the flute 

Principal theme — Violins have melody 

Transitional theme — Melody carried by violas (3)* 

Principal Theme— Violins have melody; night bird harmonization 

(4)* 

Night bird—Flute 

Principal theme fragment in violins 

Bridge— Night birds in "conversation": Flute and violins (5)* 

Secondary theme — Violas have melody; flute and clarinet (night 

birds) have "conversation" (6)* 

Bridge — Key change 

Principal theme — Melody in violins joined by night bird flutes (7)* 

* Corresponds to numbers on "Saturday Night Waltz" listening map. Narrative dialogue 

follows: 

"Saturday Night Waltz" Listening Map 

Teachers — You might want to save the listening map activity as a culminating activity to 
be done after the "Hoe-Down" activities. 

1. Leaving for home after the hoe-down. 

2 On the trail; hearing a night bird. 

3. Passing by the rodeo site. 

4. Passing by a cornfield. 

5. Hearing night birds answering one another. 

6. The homeward stretch. 

7 Watering the horse at the stream Home at last! 



50 




51 



Singing and Instrumental Activity for "Hoe-Down" 

1 . Read the lyrics as patter (similar to rapping) accompanied by pentatonic tone blocks, with 
rhythm sticks or drums to taking the soprano xylophone part. 

2. After learning to sing the lyrics, add Orff instruments. 
Theme I 



L 



w 



*q* 





J JJ.Jj^ 



p7v^-<^ i's a W*! 6 ^^ was writ-fen byAar-on Cop-Jand in nine-teen for-ty "two. 



ii 



v-y-v 



w ^ 



He was told to base if on q West-ern sherry, so he Said tha4 he wau 
Theme II 



3 See what hecouUdo. 



I 



1 



fi 



tebor-rowd lots 



vJ 



*>-* 



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a J 



dT 



S3 



West-em me|-crdies:Folk songs and square dance Times |iKe"Bon-y- parte. 



i 



s*-^ 



Cowgirl Wad been arop-in) tot- in "bm-boVjfhen^asala-dy breaK-irT tow- bays hearts! 
istrumental orchestration 



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22: 



BX^Bass Xylophone AX= Alto Xylophone SX= Soprano Xylophone SG= Soprano Glockenspiel 



52 



Theme III (Play several times to familiarize students.) 



jiii i r fc mj ii' 1 f^ijiijuji 



^^ 



^ 



ruTni^M. ,ii 



"Hoe-Down" Call Chart 

Students should be familiar with themes I, II, and III before simultaneously listening to a 
recording of "Hoe-Down" and following a transparency of the following: 



Description 

Introduction: 
Brasses and strings have a "conversation" 
Pizzicato and spiccato strings, piano, and woodblock 
Section A 

Theme I — Strings, woodwinds, xylophone, and cymbals; repeats 
Theme II — "Fiddling" strings with brass; repeats 
Theme I — Strings, woodwinds, trumpets, xylophone, and cymbals; 
repeats 

Theme II — Strings, French horns, and timpani 
Theme II — Woodwinds and middle strings 
Theme II — Full orchestra; repeats 

Theme I — Strings, woodwinds, trumpets, xylophone, and cymbals; 
repeats 

Theme I fragment — Strings, woodwinds, xylophone, and cymbals 
Bridge 
Section B 

Theme III — Solo trumpet joined by brasses, strings, and snare drum 
Transition — Solo oboe, clarinets, solo violin, and upper strings 
Theme III — Strings, brasses, and snare drum 
Trumpet and woodwind fanfare in "conversation" with strings 
Fiddling strings with full orchestra, punctuated by snare drum 
Bridge — Ritardando strings, piano, woodblock, brasses, and a few 
woodwinds 

Fermata — Mellow sounds conclude with celesta (bells) 
Section A 

Theme I — Strings, woodwinds, trumpets, xylophone, and cymbals; 
repeats 

Theme II — Woodwinds and middle strings with a monotone bass 
Theme II — Full orchestra; repeats 

Theme I fragment— Strings, woodwinds, trumpets, xylophone, and 
cymbals 
Cadence — Full orchestra 



Time 


Measures 


0:00 


1 


0:15 


18 


0:34 


39 


0:41 


47 


0:48 


55 





55 


63 





58 


67 


1 


02 


71 


1 


09 


79 


1:16 


87 


1:22 


89 


1 


26 


97 


1 


33 


105 


1 


40 


113 


1 


48 


122 


1 


55 


129 


2 


07 


142 


2:30 


158 


2:32 


159 


2:39 


167 


2:43 


171 


2 


50 


179 



2:59 189 



53 



0:34 


39-54 


0:48 


55-78 


1:09 


79-92 


1:22 


93-96 



Ribbon Activity to "Hoe-Down" 

This can be performed with no actual ribbon, but is effective with ribbon wand or with 
metallic ribbon or streamer attached to a popsicle stick, tongue depressor, or even taped 
to a lummi stick. Keep feet on the floor when trotting or galloping, with the bouncing 
action being in the knees. All activities are done in place. 

Time Measures Movements 

Section A 
0:00 1-17 Put on cowboy hat, mount horse, and pick up wand and/or ribbon 

ends as reins 
0:15 18-38 Gently bounce knees and pretend to trot (slowly look left, then 

right 

Turn right and pretend to gallop (deeper knee bounces) 

Turn to front and flick flanks with "whip" on full orchestra while 

galloping 

Turn to the left and continue to gallop 

Gradually turn to the front and start lassoing in circles overhead 

Section B 
1 :26 97-105 While facing front, make circles overhead (particularly large circles 

on octave leaps) 
Make circles to the left 

Make circles to the right (use dominant hand; don't switch wand/ 
streamer to other hand) 

Make circles overhead, large on the octave leap 
Make figure 8s to the left 
Make figure 8s to the right 
Make figure 8 s overhead 
Make circles overhead 
"Throw" lasso forward, let fall to floor 

Slowly pull in lasso, making neat loops, hang on to end of streamer 
Wipe perspiration from forehead on fermata 

Section A 
2:32 159-188 Drop loops, each hand again holds wand and/or ribbon end(s) as 

reins;gallop, facing forward, flick flanks with "whip" on full 

orchestra 
2:58 189-193 Take off hat, make circles holding brim 

3:03 194 Throw hat in the air and yell, "Yahoo!" Optional: immediately 

follow ,with tossing wand upward, and let fall to floor (adds color 

to the finale) 

Inexpensive metallic waving streamers can be ordered from Oriental Trading, P. O. Box 
3407, Omaha, NE 68 1 03-0407, phone J -8 00-2 28-2 2 69, FAX 1-800-327-8904. One 
package of six streamers is $6.50, item # 5/8. 



54 



1:33 


106-109 


1:37 


110-113 


1:40 


114-121 


1:48 


122-125 


1:51 


126-129 


1:55 


130-137 


2:03 


138-140 


2:06 


141 


2:07 


142-156 


2:30 


157-158 



"Saturday Night Waltz" Call Chart 

0:00 "Tuning up" — Strings joined by brasses 



#4 & 




TT ffH "G^rO 




0:31 Principle theme — Melody in oboe 




0:57 Night bird sound in flute 



1 :00 Principle theme — Violins have melody 



1 :23 Transitional theme — Melody carried by violas 





1 :41 Principle theme — Violins have melody, night bird 
harmonization 



2:02 Night bird— Flute 




2:06 Principle theme fragment in violins 



2:16 Bridge — Night birds in "conversation' 
Flute and violins 





2:31 Secondary theme — Violas have melody 

Flute and clarinet (night birds) have "conversation' 



3: 14 Bridge — Key change 




I MIIHJIIII i 



3 :27 Principle theme — Melody in violins joined by night bird flutes 




cLUIWIHfl 



"Hoe-Down" Call Chart 



0:00 Introduction—Brasses and strings have a "conversation", 



~^fe^ 



0:15 Pizzicato and spiccato strings, piano, and 
woodblock 




55 



"Hoe-DowTi"— conlmued 



Section A 



0:34 Theme I — Strings, woodwinds, xylophone, and 
cymbals; repeats 




0:41 Theme II — "Fiddling" strings with brass; repeats 



^ 



&— ^T 



^ 




0:48 Theme I — Strings, woodwinds, trumpets, xylophone, 
and cvmbals; repeats 



#&w *+ $ 




0:55 Theme II — Strings, French horns, and timpani 




0:58 Theme II — Woodwinds and middle strings 




1:02 Theme II— Full orchestra; repeats 





<? £4 



1:09 Theme I— Strings, woodwinds, trumpets, xylophone, 
and cymbals; repeats 




1 : 16 Theme I fragment — Strings, woodwinds, 
xylophone, and cymbals 



TT*T 




{I 



Bridge 



Section B 



1:26 Theme III — Solo trumpet joined by brasses, strings, 
and snare drum 




1:33 Transition — Solo oboe, clarinets, solo violin, and 
upper strings 





1 :40 Theme II — Strings, brasses, and snare drum 




1 :48 Trumpet and woodwind fanfare in "conversation' 
with strings 





1:55 Fiddling strings with full orchestra, punctuated by 
snare drum 



2:07 Bridge — Ritardando strings, piano, woodblock, 
brasses, and a few woodwinds 



&f& 




HCS 



=4 






2:30 Mellow sounds conclude with bells 



Section A 



2:32 Theme I — Strings, woodwinds, trumpets, xylophone, 
and cymbals; repeats 



rf#X 




2:39 Theme II — Woodwinds and middle strings with a 
monotone bass 




2:43 Theme II — Full orchestra; repeats 



&m 





2:50 Theme I fragment — Strings, woodwinds, trumpets, 
xylophone, and cymbals , 




' cJBg-0 V^ 



<} 



2:59 Cadence — Full orchestra 




56 



Vocabulary 

ballet: A theatrical performance by a dancing group, usually with costumes and scenery, 

to the accompaniment of music, but customarily without singing or spoken words. 

choreographer: One who plans movements. 

concerto: A composition for orchestra and a solo instrument. 

coulee: A deep gulch or ravine. 

discordant. Deliberately harsh and unpleasant sound. 

dogie: A stray or motherless calf. 

draw: A shallow gully where water collects. 

hoolihan (to throw the): To grab a steer by its horns and wrestle it to the ground. 

immigrant: One who comes to a country or region in order to settle there. 

innovative: Something that is newly introduced or changed. 

lyricist: One who creates words for songs. 

paint: A horse with markings that look as if they were made with splashes of paint. 

ritardando. Gradually slackening in speed. 

rodeo: A public competition or exhibition in which skills such as riding broncos or roping 

calves are displayed. 

score: A notation showing all the parts of an instrumental ensemble. 

symphony: A sonata for orchestra. 

syncopation: A deliberate disturbance of the normal pulse of meter, accent, and rhythm. 

variations: Modified restatements of a theme. 



Additional Suggestions 

Considering a Multiple Intelligences approach gives students many ways to learn. It lends 
itself well to cross-curricular teaching. Below are some of the ways that Multiple 
Intelligences may be applied. 

Verbal/Linguistic — Read about cowhands; create a cowhand's diary; research the 
ecosystem of a prairie or desert; write about a trip on the Lone Star Trail. 
Logical/Mathematical — Do a time line; figure out the counts in some of Copland's more 
interesting passages from Rodeo. 

Visual/Spatial — Design a listening map for "Hoe-Down"; paint a watercolor of a Western 
sunrise or sunset. 

Bodily/Kinesthetic — Perform a ribbon dance to "Hoe-Down"; learn to square dance. 
Intrapersonal — Listen to "Saturday Night Waltz" while outside (on a nice day) with eyes 
closed, and then share thoughts through writing or art; listen to "Hoe-Down" and/or 
"Saturday Night Waltz" and write a Western adventure starring yourself. 
Interpersonal — Mime cowhand activities to be guessed by a partner, then reverse roles; 
work together as a class to plan a Western play or performance of songs and/or dances. 
Musical/Rhythmic — Play or sing "I Ride an Old Paint"; play an ostinato for others to sing 
an appropriate Western song. 



57 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

America?! Heritage Talking Dictionary . Cambridge, Massachusetts: SoftKey 
International, Inc., 1994. 

Apel, Willi. Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap 
Press of Harvard University, 1972. 

Beethoven, Jane, Jennifer Davidson, and Catherine Nadon-Gabrion. World of Music, 
Grades 3 & 4. Morristown, New Jersey: Silver Burdett & Ginn, 1991. 

Cross, Milton and David Ewen. The Milton Cross New Encyclopedia of the Great 
Composers and Their Music. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 
1969. 

McClure, John. Copland: Billy the Kid/Rodeo compact disk notes. New York, New 
York: CBS Inc., 1981. 

Parkhurst, Jackson. The North Carolina Symphony 1991-1992 Education Concert 
Program. Raleigh, North Carolina: The North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc., 1991 

Sadie, Stanley. New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. London, England: 
MacMillan Publishers, Ltd., 1980. 

"Saturday Night Waltz" notes. Rodeo score. London, England: Boosey and Hawkes, 
1945. 



* * * See Vol 9, No. 4, Music K-8 magazine, p. 9, for a very good Aaron Copland 
word find. * * * 



Vivian Byrd has been a music specialist with Fort Bragg Schools since 1971. She has 
primarily taught at Murray and Bowley schools, both K-4. She received her B. A. from 
Methodist College and her M. M. from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 
She resided for many years in Fayetteville with husband David and son Howell (a cellist); 
they now live in Sanford. 

Particular thanks go to Bowley School fourth graders; their parents; Dr. Mary Brigham, 
principal; Dr. Joan Bowen, assistant principal; and the Bowley School PTA for making the 
demonstration possible. Special thanks, also, for the collaboration of Tamara Lewis, Andy 
Robinette, and Karen Huey, who performed the Rodeo suite under the baton of Aaron 

Copland. 



58 



Notes 



59 



Notes 



60